Why did the Saturn V rocket require so many parts?

Answer by Sophia Te Tricht:

TL;DR – Are you kidding me?!  You ask a question about three million moving parts and you want a concise answer?  Can I get you a hot apple pie with that?!  Read the whole answer!  ;) (Just kidding!  I love you guys!)

You came to the right place!  This big, beautiful bird happens to be something I can talk at some length about.  The Saturn V rocket, a collaborative effort between Boeing, North American Aviation and Douglas Aircraft; was a bizarrely complex machine.  It had to be.  Let's go to the map!


Let's break it down a little bit:

This first one, the tall one, is the first stage called the S-IC.  It was powered by 5 F-1 engines (more on those big bastards in a minute), and lifted the entire 6,500,000 pounds off the pad.  And it's mostly tank.  A little bit of pipe, but mostly tank.  The second stage, second to left called S-II, was powered by 5 J-2 engines (we'll discuss them too).  There is what's called an interstage between them, which is just a structure capable of supporting the substantial weight of the second and third stages plus the spacecraft and abort tower without buckling, absorbing and transferring the energy of the S-IC to the rest of the rocket (lest the S-IC just shoot through the rest of the rocket like it ain't no thing), and it holds the separation bolts.  Oh, stage separation, how I love thee…  We'll discuss that too.  The third from the left is the S-IVB.  Another interstage exists between the S-II and S-IVB.  The S-IVB also contained the Instrument Ring.  There was another interstage, in which was stored the lunar module, and atop that interstage sat the Apollo Command and Service Module.

Stage Separation: Let's talk about frangible bolts.  This is a frangible bolt
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBZYk1m4WMIEssentially, it's a standard, run of the mill bolt, but with a chunk of its metal section replaced with explosive.  When a signal is sent to the bolt to fire, well…  The video shows it.  In the Saturn V interstages, there were rings of frangible bolts that detonated, separating the spent stage and the interstage.

Let's talk Instrument ring.  The instrument ring on the Saturn V was in the S-IVB stage, as I mentioned before.  It looked a little something like this:

"Okay," I can hear you saying, "Doesn't look like there's much moving."  Except that this was before the age of digital anything.  They used pitot tubes for real.  Their gyros? 

There's your moving parts…

Speaking of, let's talk about engines.  F-1, submitted for your awe.

probably about half of those parts move in some way or another, not to mention the stuff you don't see, like the rotors in the turbines…  J-2, also pretty freaking awesome:

every valve, turbopump, bypass, flow meter, and generator has dozens if not hundreds of moving parts.

I'm not even going to go into the actual flight systems of the Apollo hardware.  They all add up, when you consider redundancies, which typically were at least double fault tolerant (i.e. a system can suffer two failures without being an irrecoverable loss).

Why did the Saturn V rocket require so many parts?

In what ways are Christians negatively affected, e.g. by having their constitutional rights limited, by these “anti-Christian” groups on …

Answer by Paul deHolczer:

No Christian group is having its rights limited by any groups.

Every Christian group has the same rights as any other religious group.

The American Family Association asserts a right to enshrine Christianity as a state-supported national religion in America.  Since 1977, Donald Wildmon (the founder of American Family Association) has "declared war" on everything that fails to promote his version of a Christian America. While he advocates Christian school prayer, a ban on abortion and an end to sex education in public schools, most of Wildmon's efforts revolve around censorship.  Some people have accused Wildmon and his organization of engaging in religious bigotry. (Religious leaders denounce Wildmon's anti-Semitism

That is why American Family Association labels the group Americans United For Separation of Church and State a bigoted organization.   Americans United is not an anti-Christian organization. It has never been an anti-Christian organization. Most of its founders were Christians, and it is led by a Christian minister now. Although Americans United is diverse, it has many Christian members and chapter activists, and regularly forms coalitions with a number of faith traditions.  (Fuzzy Map: Religious Right Group Accuses Americans United And Its Allies Of Being A Bevy Of Bigots)
Americans United For Separation of Church and State supports the wall of separation between church and state in America; however, Americans United holds that wall is between ALL religions (not just Christianity) and ALL government.

Christian are not being persecuted in America and no Christian group is having its rights limited by any other groups.  Christian churches in America are not taxed and are free to worship — even in dangerous ways (Snake Handling – Pentecostal Christianity) — though not in ways which will hurt others or deny others their Constitutional rights.

What is happening is that some Christians (The American Family Association apparently represents some of these.) are propagating a myth of persecution.  What leads them to do so? 

First, the myth is fueled by resentment of other religions and no religion, viewpoints whose constituencies are now demanding as much respect and acknowledgement as Christianity has expected and received as a matter of course.  For some reason, those viewpoints are threatening to Christians — even though the constituencies are not asking for preference over Christianity. 

Second, propagating a myth of persecution relieves these Christians from having to regard these other religions, and no religion, as having any validity whatsoever.  This changes the focus.

Third, there is profit to be made in fund-raising using the fear and ignorance of people who allow themselves to be enraged or threatened or misled by propaganda that Christians are "under attack" and "being threatened" or "being intimidated." (Make a Donation)

Finally, some Christians are not being allowed to use their religious beliefs as a justification for discriminating against other people.  In the past, some Christians were allowed to use their religious beliefs as a justification for discriminating against African-American (or Black) people, against homosexual people, and even against mentally-handicapped people.  Some (self-described) Christians have attempted to use their religious beliefs as a justification for pedophilia and child abuse (Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints).  Today, these sorts of discrimination are becoming less common and laws have been enacted and are being enacted to protect people.

Here is an excellent article which explains how Christianity has been distorted to justify a sense of entitlement which leads to illegal behavior:
Wrong Church Teaching May Cost Grandmother Her Home

Sadly, the myth of persecution is insulting to those vast numbers who truly suffer for their beliefs with discrimination, disenfranchisement, threats of bodily harm, rape, torture and even death.    The myth of persecution in America trivializes the concept of persecution.  Just ask an Iraqi Christian.

In what ways are Christians negatively affected, e.g. by having their constitutional rights limited, by these "anti-Christian" groups on …

Why are we not using median at all times instead of mean?

Answer by Peter Flom:

Because the mean and median have different properties and sometimes we want the ones associated with the mean.

For example, in large samples from a normal distribution, the median has a larger standard error.  For another, the mean is the expected value.  For a third, the mean is influenced by outliers and, while that is often a justification for using median, sometimes we want a measure that is influenced by outliers.

Why are we not using median at all times instead of mean?

What are some of the greatest examples of presence of mind?

Answer by Kent Fung:

In 1986, a 14-year-old violinist made her debut at Tanglewood, a world-renown music festival anchored by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Performing Leonard Bernstein's Serenade on a 7/8 sized violin, accompanied by an orchestra being conducted by the great Bernstein himself, the diminutive violinist's E-string — the highest-pitched, thinnest, and likely most fragile of the instrument's four violin strings, snapped. Likely the summer weather — which tends to affect violins and violin strings — had something to do with it.

Without missing a beat, the young violinist turned to the orchestra's concertmaster — the head of the violin sections —  and took his violin, resuming her performance seamlessly.

It must have been some weather out there that night, because the E-string on his full-sized violin snapped, too. Again without any expression of alarm, she again turned to the concertmaster, who was leading the orchestra's violinists using the violin of his stand partner, the associate concertmaster. She borrowed that violin, which held up at least long enough for her to finish the performance to a standing ovation.

That violinist was Midori Goto. Leonard Bernstein himself knelt down before her in respect and kissed her hand in homage.

What are some of the greatest examples of presence of mind?

Huckabee: There’s no such thing as the Palestinians

huckabeeRightWingHuckabee is an odd person. He uses his bizarre religious beliefs as a vine to swing freely between the tree of reason and the cliffs of insanity, sometimes going back and forth between them in the same interview. Most recently he claimed that the Palestinian People are a useful myth, “The idea that they have a long history, dating back hundreds or thousands of years, is not true,”

I think he really believes what he claims, and there’s no way to convince him he’s wrong. We can’t really discredit him, because that plays into the Christian extremists’ persecution complex. The best we can do is ensure he remains a side show and never again holds government office.

What is the difference between intelligence and commonsense?

Answer by Howie Reith:

When I was six years old my dad was teaching me how to play Dungeons and Dragons. Intelligence and Wisdom are separate stats in D&D. I found that so strange. So I asked him –

"Daddy, why are Intelligence and Wisdom different?"
"Because you can be a brilliant medical doctor who smokes cigarettes."

Intelligence is your ability to understand and learn concepts and information. Wisdom, or what you're calling common sense, is your experiences, your intuition, your habits, and how you apply them in your life.

What is the difference between intelligence and commonsense?

What is the best profession in the world?

Answer by Christopher Reiss:

A teacher, medical professional, firefighter, cop.   In no particular order.

Let me tell you a tale.   A tale of two funerals.

In the late 90's a certain relative of mine passed away.   We were not close.    He was extremely successful as an industrialist; had a mansion and yachts and a collection of Rolls Royce's.

His name is on a building, he left a wake of endowments behind him.

But he didn't have much contact with others.   Couldn't resolve conflict.  Was often belligerent and obnoxious.

20 people came to his funeral. 10 of us family and the rest on his payroll in one way or another.

Ok, let me tell u about another funeral.   My father was a philosophy teacher at Conn College for almost 40 years.   He died suddenly between Christmas and New Year's, 1999.

Trips were cancelled.   Flight plans redirected.   100's of people showed up for his funeral.    Mostly former students.

One simply shook my hand and said, "Your father inspired me to be a teacher."

That's legacy.   That's life.   That's why we came.

What is the best profession in the world?

Why does my dad stare at other women even when my mom and I are with him?

Answer by Christopher Lamke:

Many men are hardwired to look at women and it's often difficult to control. I know that women look at men too, but are generally more subtle. It sounds like your father is leering at women and girls, and I can imagine that's embarrassing for you, and creepy and maybe a little scary for the girls.

I wish I knew of a technique you could use, or get your father to use, to reduce his leering. This is partly a matter of self control, and partly a matter of biological compulsion. I speculate that your father could do better if he focused on it, and if he was satisfied sexually, he might do better, but there's no guarantee. Some men seem destined to be dominated by sexuality, forever in the state of teen boys, at least until their hormones subside when they reach sufficient age.

Understanding how sexual cues work in men may help you understand what's going on with your father. This should help – Ogi Ogas, "A Billion Wicked Thoughts" | Talks at …: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-A8GvUehq4&feature=youtu.be

Good luck. I hope you and your mother find a way to improve your father's behavior around women or come to terms with his nature.

Why does my dad stare at other women even when my mom and I are with him?